School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

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Background: Cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) appear decades before developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adulthood.

Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the prevalence and association between CMRFs and kidney function in apparently healthy young adults (18-25 years old).

Methods: We included 5531 freshman year students. Data collected on CMRFs included central obesity, high body mass index (hBMI >25), blood pressure, glycemia, lipids, uric acid (UA >6.8 mg/dL), and insulin. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration formula. We used logistic regression and a log linear for odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence level) and probabilities.

Results: The presence of any CMRF was observed in 78% (4312) of individuals; GFR ≥120/130 mL/min/1.73 m2sc was found in 33%, GFR/min/1.73 m2sc in 3%, and proteinuria in 3%. Factors associated with high GFR were hBMI (OR 1.3 [1.14, 1.47]), UA (OR 0.2 [0.15, 0.26]), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (OR 1.4 [1.2, 1.6]), and insulin resistance (OR 1.3 [1.05, 1.7]). CMRF associated with low GFR was UA (OR 1.8 [1.3, 2.6]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.66 [1.05, 2.6]), and proteinuria (OR 3.4 [2.07, 5.7]). Proteinuria was associated with high UA (OR 1.59 [1.01, 2.5]) and hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.8 [1.03, 3.18]). The sole presence of hBMI+UA predicted low GFR with p = 0.6 and hBMI+UA+low HDL predicted proteinuria with p = 0.55.

Conclusions: CMRFs were highly prevalent among this freshman student population and were associated with proteinuria and GFR abnormalities. Future studies should focus on public health programs to prevent or delay the development of CKD.


© 2020 Permanyer. Original published version available at

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Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion



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Office of Human Genetics



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