Considerable progress has been made during the past twenty years towards elucidating the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in skin cancer. In 1999, the original notion that PPARβ/δ was involved with epithelial cell function was postulated based on a correlation between PPARβ/δ expression and the induction of mRNAs encoding proteins that mediate terminal differentiation in keratinocytes. Subsequent studies definitively revealed that PPARβ/δ could induce terminal differentiation and inhibit proliferation of keratinocytes. Molecular mechanisms have since been discovered to explain how this nuclear receptor can be targeted for preventing and treating skin cancer. This includes the regulation of terminal differentiation, mitotic signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cellular senescence. Interestingly, the effects of activating PPARβ/δ can preferentially target keratinocytes with genetic mutations associated with skin cancer. This review provides the history and current understanding of how PPARβ/δ can be targeted for both non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, and postulates how future approaches that modulate PPARβ/δ signaling may be developed for the prevention and treatment of these diseases.
Peters, J. M., Kim, D. J., Bility, M. T., Borland, M. G., Zhu, B., & Gonzalez, F. J. (2019). Regulatory mechanisms mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ in skin cancer. Molecular carcinogenesis, 58(9), 1612–1622. https://doi.org/10.1002/mc.23033