Epimagnolin targeting on an active pocket of mammalian target of rapamycin suppressed cell transformation and colony growth of lung cancer cells
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and cancer cell proliferation in diverse human cancers. In this study, we observed that epimagnolin, a natural compound abundantly found in Shin-Yi, suppressed cell proliferation by inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced G1/S cell-cycle phase transition in JB6 Cl41 cells. Interestingly, epimagnolin suppressed EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation strongly at Ser473 and weakly at Thr308 without alteration of phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK kinases (MEKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERKs), and RSK1, resulting in abrogation of the phosphorylation of GSK3β at Ser9 and p70S6K at Thr389. Moreover, we found that epimagnolin suppressed c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser63/73, resulting in the inhibition of activator protein 1 (AP-1) transactivation activity. Computational docking indicated that epimagnolin targeted an active pocket of the mTOR kinase domain by forming three hydrogen bonds and three hydrophobic interactions. The prediction was confirmed by using in vitro kinase and adenosine triphosphate-bead competition assays. The inhibition of mTOR kinase activity resulted in the suppression of anchorage-independent cell transformation. Importantly, epimagnolin efficiently suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony growth of H1650 rather than H460 lung cancer cells with dependency of total and phosphorylated protein levels of mTOR and Akt. Inhibitory signaling of epimagnolin on cell proliferation of lung cancer cells was observed mainly in mTOR-Akt-p70S6K and mTOR-Akt-GSK3β-AP-1, which was similar to that shown in JB6 Cl41 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that epimagnolin potentiates as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents by direct active pocket targeting of mTOR kinase, resulting in sensitizing cancer cells harboring enhanced phosphorylation of the mTORC2-Akt-p70S6k signaling pathway.
Yoo, SM, Lee, CJ, Kang, HC, et al. Epimagnolin targeting on an active pocket of mammalian target of rapamycin suppressed cell transformation and colony growth of lung cancer cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis. 2019; 58: 1221- 1233. https://doi.org/10.1002/mc.23005