School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

An evidence-based, risk-adapted algorithm for antifungal prophylaxis reduces risk for invasive mold infections in children with hematologic malignancies

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Children with hematologic malignancies, especially those who receive intensive chemotherapy, are at high risk for invasive mold infections (IMI) that confer substantial mortality. Randomized controlled trials support the use of antifungal prophylaxis with antimold activity as an optimal strategy for risk reduction in this population, but studies outlining the practical application of evidence-based recommendations are lacking.


We conducted a 15-year, single-institution retrospective review in a diverse cohort of children with hematologic malignancies treated with chemotherapy to determine the incidence of proven or probable IMI diagnosed between 2006 and 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify host and disease factors associated with IMI risk. We then compared the incidence and type of IMI and related factors before and after 2016 implementation of an evidence-based, risk-adapted antifungal prophylaxis algorithm that broadened coverage to include molds in patients at highest risk for IMI.


We identified 61 cases of proven or probable IMI in 1456 patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies during the study period (4.2%). Implementation of an antifungal prophylaxis algorithm reduced the IMI incidence in this population from 4.8% to 2.9%. Both Hispanic ethnicity and cancer diagnosis prior to 2016 were associated with risk for IMI.


An evidence-based, risk-adapted approach to antifungal prophylaxis for children with hematologic malignancies is an effective strategy to reduce incidence of IMI.


© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC

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Pediatric Blood & Cancer



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