Temperament involves stable behavioral and emotional tendencies that differ between individuals, which can be first observed in infancy or early childhood and relate to behavior in many contexts and over many years.1 One of the most rigorously characterized temperament classifications relates to the tendency of individuals to avoid the unfamiliar and to withdraw from unfamiliar people, objects, and unexpected events. This temperament is referred to as behavioral inhibition or inhibited temperament (IT).2 IT is a moderately heritable trait1 that can be measured in multiple species.3 In humans, levels of IT can be quantified from the first year of life through direct behavioral observations or reports by caregivers or teachers. Similar approaches as well as self-report questionnaires on current and/or retrospective levels of IT1 can be used later in life.
Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Bernstein, R., Benson, B. E., Buss, K. A., Gunther, K. E., Pérez-Edgar, K., Salum, G. A., Jackowski, A. P., Bressan, R. A., Zugman, A., Degnan, K. A., Filippi, C. A., Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Tang, A., Zeytinoglu, S., Harrewijn, A., Hillegers, M. H. J., White, T., van IJzendoorn, M. H., … ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group (2022). Structural Brain Correlates of Childhood Inhibited Temperament: An ENIGMA-Anxiety Mega-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 61(9), 1182–1188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2022.04.023
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Office of Human Genetics