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Dicationic imidazolium-based ionic liquids with amino acid anions, such as IonL-phenylalanine (IonL-Phe), have been proposed as a multifunctional coating for titanium (Ti) dental implants. However, there has been no evaluation of the biocompatibility of these Ti coatings in the oral environment. This study aims to evaluate the effects of IonL-Phe on early healing and osseointegration of Ti in multiple rat demographics. IonL-Phe-coated and uncoated Ti screws were implanted into four demographic groups of rats to represent biological variations that could affect healing: young males (YMs) and females (YFs), ovariectomized (OVXFs) females, and old males (OMs). Samples underwent histopathological and histomorphometric analysis to evaluate healing at 7 and 30 days around IonL-coated and uncoated Ti. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was also conducted at the 2- and 7-day YM groups to evaluate molecular dynamics of healing while the IonL-Phe was present on the surface. IonL-coated and uncoated implants demonstrated similar histological signs of healing, while coated samples’ differential gene expression of immunological and bone markers was compared with uncoated implants at 2 and 7 days in YMs. While YMs presented suitable osseointegration for both uncoated and IonL-Phe-coated groups, decreased success rate in other demographics resulted from lack of supporting bone in YFs and poor bone quality in OVXFs and OMs. Overall, it was found that IonL-coated samples had increased bone-to-implant contact across all demographic groups. IonL-Phe coating led to successful osseointegration across all animal demographics and presented the potential to prevent failures in scenarios known to be challenged by bacteria.


© 2022 by the authors.

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