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There is a need to improve the predictability of osseointegration in implant dentistry. Current literature uses a variety of in vivo titanium (Ti) implantation models to investigate failure modes, and test new materials and surfaces. However, these models produces a variety of results, making comparison across studies difficult. The purpose of this study is to validate an oral osseointegration in the Lewis rat to provide a reproducible baseline to track inflammatory response and healing of Ti implants.


Ti screws (0.76 mm Ø x 2 mm length) were implanted into the maxillary diastema of 52 adult male Lewis rats. Peri-implant tissues were evaluated 2, 7, 14, and 30 days after implantation (n = 13). Seven of the thirteen samples underwent microtomographic analysis, histology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry to track healing parameters. The remaining 6 samples underwent qPCR to evaluate gene expression of inflammation and bone remodeling markers over time.


This model achieved a 78.5 % success rate. Successful implants had 68.86% ± 3.15 BIC % at 30 days on average. Histologically, healing was similar to other rodent models: hematoma and acute inflammation at 2 days, initial bone formation at 7, advanced bone formation and remodeling at 14, and bone maturation at 30. qPCR indicated the highest expression of bone remodeling and inflammatory markers 2-7 days, before slowly declining to non-surgery control levels at 14-30 days.


This model combines cost-effectiveness and simplicity of a rodent model, while maximizing BIC, making it an excellent candidate for evaluation of new surfaces.

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ACS biomaterials science & engineering

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