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Rhizophora mangle L. is a tropical and subtropical mangrove species that occurs as a dominant tree species in the intertidal zone of low-energy shorelines. Rhizophora mangle plays an important role in coastal zones as habitat for a wide range of organisms of intertidal food webs, as a natural barrier to coastal erosion, and as carbon sequestration. A review of mangrove literature has been performed, but a review specifically on red mangroves has not. The approach was to cover a broad range of topics with a focus on topics that have seen significant work since the 1970s. This review includes a brief introduction to red mangroves and then focuses on the following topics: biogeography, habitats and zonation, geomorphological interactions, taxonomy, histology, anatomy, physiological ecology, productivity, biomass, litter, reproduction, population biology, plant communities, interactions with other species, impacts of storms, reforestation, remote sensing, modelling, and economic importance.


Copyright Coastal Education and Research Foundation,Inc.2020. Original published version available at

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Journal of Coastal Research



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Biology Commons



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