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Proteins and peptides are major components of snake venom. Venom protein transcriptomes and proteomes of many snake species have been reported; however, snake venom complexity (i.e., the venom protein-protein interactions, PPIs) remains largely unknown. To detect the venom protein interactions, we used the most common snake venom component, phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) as a “bait” to identify the interactions between PLA2s and 14 of the most common proteins in Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom by using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis, a technique used to detect PPIs. As a result, we identified PLA2s interacting with themselves, and lysing-49 PLA2 (Lys49 PLA2) interacting with venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP). To reveal the complex structure of Lys49 PLA2-CRISP interaction at the structural level, we first built the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Lys49 PLA2 and CRISP by a widely used computational program-MODELLER. The binding modes of Lys49 PLA2-CRISP interaction were then predicted through three different docking programs including ClusPro, ZDOCK and HADDOCK. Furthermore, the most likely complex structure of Lys49 PLA2-CRISP was inferred by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with GROMACS software. The techniques used and results obtained from this study strengthen the understanding of snake venom protein interactions and pave the way for the study of animal venom complexity.


© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This article has been corrected.

Publication Title

Current Research in Toxicology



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Biology Commons



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