Genome Editing: A Review of the Challenges and Approaches

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Genome editing is a recent technological advancement in life sciences that is being used to create novel genetic changes in the genome across different species, including plants, bacteria, and animals. Site-directed nucleases were earlier used for genome editing, and nowadays, CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based genome editing technology is popular among scientists due to its simplicity, flexibility, and ease of access. In this review, mechanisms such as repairing double-stranded breaks through non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination as well as history of genome editing and different genome-editing approaches, including ZFNs, TALENs, meganucleases, base editing, prime editing, and CRISPR/Cas, are discussed. CRISPR/Cas have been successfully used for treating human diseases and crop improvement. But despite numerous advantages of using CRISR/Cas as a tool of gene modification, it is also facing major hurdles. The review highlights complex designing, inefficient delivery systems, selection of target sites, design of guide RNA (gRNA), occurrence of off-targets, weak efficiency of repair of eukaryotes, endonuclease activity, and cytotoxicity of Cas9 as the major challenges. The information provided in this review will facilitate in understanding genome editing and approaches that it includes along with their technological advancements and challenges.


© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

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Genome Editing. Springer, Cham.