Document Type


Publication Date



The classical Hantzsch reaction is one of the simplest and most economical methods for the synthesis of biologically important and pharmacologically useful 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate under microwave irradiation is proven to act as a very efficient catalyst for a one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines in excellent yields from diverse amines/ammonium acetate, aldehydes and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds within 1-3 min under solvent-free conditions. The present environmentally benign procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines is suitable for library synthesis and it will find application in the synthesis of potent biologically active molecules. The excellent yield and extreme rapidity of the method is due to a concurrent effect of the catalyst and microwave irradiation.


© 2012 the authors. Published under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. Original published version available at

First Page


Last Page


Publication Title




Included in

Chemistry Commons


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.