School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Combined effects of high temperature and pesticide mixture exposure on free-swimming behaviors and hepatic cytochrome P450 1A expression in goldfish, Carassius auratus

Document Type


Publication Date



The synergy between multiple compounds and other stressors, including heat, creates volatility and greater unpredictability than standard single-chemical toxicity testing, especially in the case of pesticides and metabolites which might contain several noxious ingredients resulting in adverse ecological effects. To address this, the aim of this study was to examine the dose- and time-dependent effects of low- and high-dose pesticide mixture (metalachlor, linuron, isoproturon, tebucanazole, aclonifen, atrazine, pendimethalin, azinphos-methyl) and heat stress co-exposure (22°C control/32°C treatment for 4-week) on free-swimming behaviors and cumulative actionless time (CAT) of goldfish. Behavioral analysis showed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in distance swam, as well as a subsequent increase in CAT. Vertical and horizontal spatial behavioral use were affected under heat and pesticides co-exposure conditions. In 3- and 4-week(s) exposure groups, horizontal spatial behavioral use demonstrated elevated time spent in the lower third of the aquarium. Similarly, during 3- and 4-week(s) exposure (32°C control and 32°C high doses) vertical spatial behavioral use was found to increase time spent in the outermost edges of the aquarium. In all treatment groups, the final condition factor (KM) showed significant attenuation when compared to the initial KM. However, there was an unclear relationship between heat/pesticide co-exposure and growth most notably in 32°C high-dose groups. In addition, the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A mRNA was significantly higher in pesticide-exposed groups. Taken together, data demonstrated that co-exposure with low- or high-dose pesticide mixture and heat stress significantly impacted natural swimming patterns, which over time might result in the broader population and ecological effects.


© 2023 Taylor & Francis

Publication Title

Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A