Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

First Advisor

Dr. MD Saydur Rahman

Second Advisor

Dr. Ahmed Touhami

Third Advisor

Dr. Sue Anne Chew


Intense anthropogenic activities of industrialized nations dramatically increase environmental pollution. This study focused on the effects of Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide, exposure (low- and high-dose: 0.5 and 5 mg/L for 2 weeks) on dinitrophenyl protein (DNP), nitrotyrosine protein (NTP), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Na+ /K+ - ATPase (NKA), and renin expressions, and cellular apoptosis in the gills and kidneys of goldfish. Histopathological analysis showed widespread tissue damage in both gills and kidneys. Immunohistochemical analysis provided insights into the expression of molecular biomarkers in tissues. Fish exposed to Roundup exhibited a significant (P<0.05) upregulation in DNP, NTP, SOD, and CAT expressions, and apoptotic nuclei in both tissues. Additionally, exposure to Roundup significantly increased renin expression in kidneys and decreased NKA expression in gills. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to Roundup induces oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis and alters osmoregulatory and antioxidant systems which may lead to impaired physiological functions in goldfish.


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