Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Nazmul Islam

Second Advisor

Dr. Ali Ashraf

Third Advisor

Dr. Paul Choi


Novel and flexible disposable laser-engraved Kapton (LEK) electrodes modified with graphene conductive inks have been developed for dopamine and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) detection. The LEK sensors exhibit high reproducibility (RSD=0.76%, N=5) and stability (RSD=4.39%, N=15)after multiple bendings, and thus make the sensors ideal for wearable and stretchable bioelectronics applications. We have developed graphene conductive ink- PEDOT:PSS (G-PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (G-PANI) based electrode coatings for working electrode modification to improve the sensitivity (41.41 times higher for screen printed electrode with G-PEDPT:PSS ink modification),and limit of detection (LOD) . We have further compared the performance of the fabricated electrodes with commercially available screen-printed electrodes (SPE), screen-printed electrodes modified with G-PEDOT:PSS (SPE/G-PEDOT:PSS) and G-PANI (SPE/G-PANI). SPE/G-PANI has a lower LOD of 0.632 μM, compared to SPE/G-PEDOT:PSS (0.867 μM) and SPE/G-PANI(1.974 μM). The lowest LOD of the LEK/G-PANI sensor (0.4084 μM, S/N=3) suggests that it can be a great alternative to measure dopamine levels in a physiological medium. Additionally, LEK/G-PANI electrode has excellent LOD (2.6234 pg/mL) to detect IL-6.


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