Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Curriculum & Instruction

First Advisor

Dr. Elena Venegas

Second Advisor

Dr. Xiaodi Zhou

Third Advisor

Dr. Janine Schall


Literacy in the 21st century includes multiple modes of communication that include culturally and linguistic diverse representation. It also includes multimodal texts that use visual, audio, and technological elements to create meaning. The new changing technologies have expanded literacy to more than print and written forms. Literacy instruction has seen pedagogical changes, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Educators need to explore new literacy practices that benefit the growing diversity in societies along with the fast-growing technologies. Students need skills and mentoring to navigate digital learning platforms. Literacy in the 21st century includes multimodal texts, technology, nontraditional literacy skills, and multiliteracies.

Recent literacy research shows an increasing implementation of multimodal literacies; thus, there is little to no research on teachers' perspectives and students' literacy development. This study offers insight into teachers' perspectives on multimodal texts in middle school Reading Language Arts classrooms. Teachers’ perspectives regarding the ongoing changes to literacy and the digital world can provide understandings of how teachers are developing students’ literacy skills.


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