Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Debasish Bandyopadhyay

Second Advisor

Narayan Bhat

Third Advisor

Mohammed Uddin


Although many synthetic and natural pharmaceuticals and drug-like compounds contain spiro center(s) in their structures, the synthesis of spiro centers is seen to be an exciting and difficult area of research. The synthesis of spiro compounds and their derivatives was carried out using a four-component process that included reagents like hydrazine hydrate, isatin, malononitrile, and an active methylene compound like ethyl acetoacetate. Microwave irradiation was used in a short time range (5 – 30 min) and moderate temperature (80°C), with water as a solvent, and N, N-Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as a catalyst to give high yield of products. Our process complies to a number of green chemical concepts, including preserving the atom economy, reducing reaction times, exploring the green organocatalyst DIPEA, the green solvent water, the green methodology microwave irradiation, etc. The newly discovered four-component chemical pathway has been used to synthesis a number of spiro[indoline-3,4-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole] derivatives. Some of these derivatives might be used in upcoming studies on drug development.


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