Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Ocean, Coastal, and Earth Sciences

First Advisor

Md Saydur Rahman

Second Advisor

Jongsun Kim

Third Advisor

Lucia Carreon Martinez


The prevalence of pesticides in the aquatic environment continues to increase due to anthropogenic activities and poses a threat to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term exposure (one-week) of pesticide mixtures (metolachlor, linuron, isoproturon, tebucanazole, alconifen, atrazine, pendimethalin; azinphos-methyl) on swimming behaviors, kidney morphology, and expression of nitrotyrosine protein (NTP), dinitrophenyl protein (DNP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), renin, and cellular apoptosis in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results indicated that both low- and high-dose pesticide mixtures decreased the distance swimming behavior. Histological analysis showed pesticide exposure alters kidney morphology. DNP, NTP, and renin expressions, and apoptotic cells were increased with increasing pesticide concentrations. SOD and CAT expressions were also altered during pesticide exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that short-term exposure to pesticide mixture significantly alters free-swimming behavior, changes in kidney morphology, and increases oxidative-nitrative stress biomarkers which may lead to impaired physiological functions in fish.


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