Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Rehabilitation Counseling

First Advisor

Dr. Jerome Fischer

Second Advisor

Dr. Saara Grizzell

Third Advisor

Dr. Alfonso Mercado


The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between counselor supervisors’ and supervisees’ perceptions of the impact of multicultural supervision on client outcome. Counselor supervisors and supervisees may have differences in how much they believe multicultural factors affect client outcome and this study aims to determine what differences exist. These differences are important in understanding how supervisors might better serve supervisees and in turn clients. There were 61 participants in the study that consisted of faculty, counselor supervisors, counselors, and graduate students in counseling-related fields. The current study found that multicultural supervision/competence alone predicted supervisor client outcome. The findings suggest that training in supervision and multicultural supervision is vital to the professional development of counselors and trainees in counseling-related fields. This training is also necessary because of the impact it has on clients. The implications of this study are to be able to improve the knowledge of those in counseling-related fields as to the importance of multicultural counseling and competence in training. Further research on what supervisees consider as important contributions to client outcome should be considered. One recommendation is to explore further what subscales of both the independent variables of supervision satisfaction, counselor self-efficacy, the supervisory working alliance, multicultural supervision/competence and the dependent variable of perceived client outcome to provide more specific information about what aspects are important contributions to perceived client outcome by supervisors and supervisees.


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