Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Jong Min Kim

Second Advisor

Dr. Philip Park

Third Advisor

Dr. Mohammed Abdel Raheem


Electrochemical water softening has obtained significant attention in recent years due to being environmentally friendly. One of this method's significant problems is the requirement of high cathodic surface area for enough efficiency. As most electrochemical cells use costly metal cathodes with meager service life and low structural integrity, practical large-scale implementation is scarce. In this research, graphite-concrete cathodes were proposed to replace conventional metal cathodes in the electrochemical water softening process. Graphite concrete has been used for heating pavement and electrical conductive roads. In this research concrete mixed with graphite powder by volume was successfully used as a cathode to treat LRGV(Lower Rio Grande valley) tap water. In this Electrochemical precipitation process, the total removal efficiency was achieved up to 53% at 35.5 Volt with a retention time of 60 minutes and an interelectrode distance of .5cm. The 10% graphite-concrete cathodes were responsible for this performance the decent efficiency suggested that graphite concrete cathodes are viable alternatives to metal ones in hardness removal from tap water. Also, optimal performance parameters such as inter electrode distance, material and retention times were discovered. In this research it was concluded that with perfect conditions, conductive concrete can be used as structural material. Furthermore, it can provide efficient and effective water hardness treatment for the topwater. Further research is needed on flowing water and heavy metal removal to know the trye potential of this electrochemical precipitation method.


Copyright 2021 Mirza Addaito Billah. All Rights Reserved.