Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Manufacturing Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Jianzhi Li

Second Advisor

Dr. Andrew Tsin

Third Advisor

Dr. Douglas Timmer


This thesis focuses on the 3D bioprinting of retina cone cells using the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique. Bioprinting has a great potential to mimic and regenerate the human organoid system, and the LIFT technique has emerged as an efficient method for high resolution micropatterning and microfabrication of biomaterials and cells due to its capability of creating precise, controlled microdroplets. In this research, the parameters for an effective femtosecond laser-based LIFT process for 3D bioprinting of collagen biomaterial were studied. Different concentrations of collagen I solutions were tested to find out the right concentration that can be transferred through the LIFT system. Then, cone cells mixed with collagen I and dulbecco's modified eagle's medium (DMEM), have been printed. Some important laser parameters such as pulse energy and pulse pick divider have been experimented with to form a successful, smooth, high-resolution deposition. The cell viability in the bioink and printed droplet was measured at different time horizons. A general full factorial design of the experiment was used to analyze and observe the relationship between the droplet quality and the LIFT process parameters. Via Minitab’s Design of Experiment (DoE) analysis, some regression models were developed to aid in finding the parameter combinations to print different sizes of the droplet of the cell-laden bioink.


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