Document Type


Publication Date



The associations of nutrition factors and physical activities with adult diabetes are inconsistent; while most of these factors are inter correlated. The aims of this study are to overcome the disturbance of the multicollinearity of the risk factors and examine the associations of these factors with diabetes using the principal component analysis (PCA) and regression analysis with principal component scores (PCS). Totally, 659 adults with diabetes and 2827 non-diabetic were selected from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 2). PCA was utilized to deal with multicollinearity of the risk factors. Weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of potential factors and PCS with diabetes. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The first 3 PCs for nutrition factors and physical activities could explain 70% variances. The first principal component (PC1) is a measure of nutrition factors (fruit and vegetables consumption), PC2 is a measure for physical activities (moderate exercise and strength training), and PC3 is about calorie information use and soda use. Weighted multiple logistic regression showed that African Americans, middle aged adults (45-64 years), elderly (65+), never married, and with lower education were associated with increased odds of diabetes. After adjusting for others factors, the PC1 showed marginal association with diabetes (OR=0.84, 95% CI=0.70-1.01); while PC2 and PC3 revealed significant associations with diabetes (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.61-0.86 and OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.74-0.99, respectively). In conclusion, PCA can be used to reduce the indicators in complex survey data. The first 3 PCs of nutrition factors and physical activities were associated with diabetes. Promotion of health food and physical activities should be encouraged to help decrease the prevalence of diabetes.


Original published version available at

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Title

Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics





To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.