Marketing Faculty Publications and Presentations

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  • The 4C framework highlights four unique characteristics of AR: Consumer, Content, Context, and Computing Device.

  • Engagement with AR derives from an alignment of the 4 Cs.

  • The paper advances theory by using the lens of complexity theory to explain how to engage consumers in AR experiences.

  • The framework offers significant implications for managers and scholars.

  • It allows systematic approaches to assess, communicate, and develop AR applications across various disciplines.


Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging concept that impacts many disciplines, such as business, marketing, tourism, gaming, human–computer interaction, and manufacturing. Surprisingly, many scholarly and practical discussions overlook the fundamental primary factors that distinguish AR from other concepts, namely, that it involves a computing device that integrates virtual content into a consumer's perception of the real world in a specific context. The current article addresses this gap in the literature by proposing the 4C framework (based on the 4Cs: consumer, content, context, and computing device; pronounced: foresee) that highlights the importance of, and interplay among these four factors. Building on configurational theory, the framework calls for the systematic identification of additional AR-relevant factors across the 4Cs. Scholars can use this framework to systematically identify research gaps and variables of interest. Practitioners across various disciplines can employ the framework to systematically assess, communicate, and develop AR use cases.


Under a Creative Commons license

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Title

Computers in Human Behavior



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Marketing Commons



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