Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Document Type


Publication Date



Relationship-oriented human resource management (HRM) contributes to organizational functioning by promoting employee relationships, coordination, and cooperation. We propose unit-level positive affective climate as a motivational mechanism through which relationship-oriented HR systems can positively influence unit service quality and relationships with beneficiaries, and prevent individual emotional exhaustion. Moreover, we propose collective occupational calling serves as an alternative motivational source that can substitute for the positive effects of positive affective climate. In analyzing a sample composed of 742 nurses from 48 nursing units of two hospitals in China with data collection at three time points before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, our results supported the substituting effects of unit-level collective occupational calling on positive affective climate stemmed from relationship-oriented HR systems. Our study connects strategic HRM and motivation research by shedding light on an affective mechanism from relationship-oriented HR systems and the contingencies involving employees' various sources of motivation, such as occupational calling. We further discuss theoretical and practical implications of the research.


Original published version available at

Publication Title

Human Resource Management



Available for download on Wednesday, April 01, 2026