Explainable AI (XAI)-driven vibration sensing scheme for surface quality monitoring in a smart surface grinding process

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Local Interpretable and Model-agnostic Explanation (LIME), an explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) approach is adapted to identify the globally important time-frequency bands for predicting average surface roughness (Ra) in a smart grinding process. The smart grinding setup consisted of a Supertech CNC precision surface grinding machine, instrumented with a Dytran piezoelectric accelerometer attached to the tailstock quill along the tangential direction (Y-axis). For every grinding pass, vibration signatures were captured, and the ground truth surface roughness values were recorded using a Mahr Marsurf M300C portable surface roughness profilometer. The roughness values ranged from 0.06 to 0.14 microns over the complete set of experiments. Time-frequency domain spectrogram frames were extracted for each of the vibration signals collected during the grinding process. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) were modeled to predict the surface roughness based on these spectrogram frames and their image augmentations. The best CNN model was able to predict the roughness values with an overall R2-score of 0.95, training R2-score of 0.99, and testing R2-score of 0.81 with only 80 sets of vibration signals corresponding to 4 experiments with 20 trials each. Although the data size is not large enough to guarantee such performance metrics in real-world scenarios, one can extract statistically consistent explanations underlying the relationships these complex deep learning models capture. The LIME methodology was implemented on the developed surface roughness CNN model to identify the important time-frequency bands (i.e., the superpixels of a spectrogram) influencing the predictions. Based on the identified important regions on the spectrogram frames, the corresponding frequency characteristics were determined that influence the surface roughness predictions. The important frequency range based on LIME results was approximately 11.7 to 19.1 kHz. The power of XAI was demonstrated by cutting down the sampling rate from 160 kHz to 30, 20, 10, and 5 kHz based on the important frequency range and considering Nyquist criteria. Separate CNN models were developed for these ranges by only extracting time-frequency contents below their corresponding Nyquist cut-offs. A proper data acquisition strategy is proposed by comparing the model performances to argue the selection of a sufficient sampling rate to capture the grinding process successfully and robustly.


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Journal of Manufacturing Processes