School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Document Type


Publication Date



Increased vascular permeability is a frequent outcome of viperid snakebite envenomation, leading to local and systemic complications. We reported that snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins (svCRiSPs) from North American pit vipers increase vascular permeability both in vitro and in vivo. They also induce acute activation of several adhesion and signaling molecules that may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of snakebites. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained interest for their diverse functions in intercellular communication, regulating cellular processes, blood-endothelium interactions, vascular permeability, and immune modulation. They also hold potential as valuable biomarkers for diagnosing, predicting, and monitoring therapeutic responses in different diseases. This study aimed to identify proteins in peritoneal exudate and plasma EVs isolated from BALB/c mice following a 30 min post-injection of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus venom and its purified CRiSP (Css-CRiSP). EVs were isolated from these biofluids using the EVtrap method. Proteomic analysis of exudate- and plasma-derived EVs was performed using LC-MS/MS. We observed significant upregulation or downregulation of proteins involved in cell adhesion, cytoskeleton rearrangement, signal transduction, immune responses, and vesicle-mediated transports. These findings suggest that svCRiSPs play a crucial role in the acute effects of venom and contribute to the local and systemic toxicity of snakebites.


© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Title




Academic Level


Mentor/PI Department

Office of Human Genetics



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.