School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Document Type


Publication Date




Human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) and severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) have been established as the prime targets to restrict viral invasion and replication inside the host, respectively.


The current study delineated the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro as well as human ACE-2 inhibitory potential of carotenoids and polyphenols from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) via in-silico interaction studies.


Our drug-likeness studies showed that the selected carotenoids and polyphenols exhibited acceptable Lipinski’s score and ADME determinants. Further, in-silico molecular modelling studies revealed that β-carotene, among other carotenoids, topped the binding score (ΔG: −6.75 kcal/mol; Ki: 11.32 μM) against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, whereas, cyanidin was the best inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (−7.24 kcal/mol; Ki: 4.92 μM) amongst polyphenols. Similarly, α-carotene from carotenoids exhibited strongest human ACE-2 inhibitory activity (ΔG: −8.85 kcal/mol; Ki: 326.13 μM), whereas, cyanidin from polyphenols showed best binding affinity against human ACE-2 (ΔG: −7.24 kcal/mol; Ki: 4.89 μM). In contrast, 6-(ethylamino)-pyridine-3-carbonitrile, standard inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, exhibited comparatively weaker binding (ΔG: −4.78 kcal/mol; Ki: 267.49 μM), whereas, telmisartan (reference ACE-2 inhibitor) also exhibited lesser affinity (ΔG: −6.40 kcal/mol; Ki: 20.40 μM). Further exploration via MDS studies also validated the dynamic behavior and stability of protein-ligand complexes as evident by desirable RMSD, RMSF, Rg, and SASA.


The current study established carotenoids and polyphenols from S. lycopersicum L. as finer substitutes of reference standards against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and human ACE-2 activity in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Under a Creative Commons license

Publication Title

Intelligent Pharmacy



Academic Level


Mentor/PI Department

Immunology and Microbiology



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.