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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary cardiac condition characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy without a hemodynamic cause. This condition is prevalent in the United States, resulting in various clinical manifestations, including diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular outflow obstruction, cardiac ischemia, and atrial fibrillation. HCM is associated with several genetic mutations, with sarcomeric mutations being the most common and contributing to a more complex disease course. Early diagnosis of HCM is essential for effective management, as late diagnosis often requires invasive treatments and creates a substantial financial burden. Disparities in HCM diagnosis and treatment exist between highincome and low-income countries. High-income countries have more resources to investigate and implement advanced diagnostic and treatment modalities. In contrast, low-income countries face challenges in accessing diagnostic equipment, trained personnel, and affordable medications, leading to a lower quality of life and life expectancy for affected individuals. Diagnostic tools for HCM include imaging studies such as 2D echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and electrocardiograms (ECGs). CMR is considered the gold standard but remains inaccessible to a significant portion of the world's population, especially in low-income countries. Genetics plays a crucial role in HCM, with numerous mutations identified in various genes. Genetic counseling is essential but often limited in low-income countries due to resource constraints. Disparities in healthcare access and adherence to treatment recommendations exist between high-income and low-income countries, leading to differences in patient outcomes. Addressing these disparities is essential to improve the overall management of HCM on a global scale. In conclusion, this review highlights the complex nature of HCM, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis, genetic counseling, and access to appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Addressing healthcare disparities is crucial to ensure that all individuals with HCM receive timely and effective care, regardless of their geographic location or socioeconomic status.


© Copyright 2023 Calderon Martinez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Medical Education



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