School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

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Patients with ischemic stroke and concomitant COVID‐19 infection have worse outcomes than those without this infection, but the impact of COVID‐19 on hemorrhagic stroke remains unclear. We aimed to assess if COVID‐19 worsens outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods and Results

We conducted an observational study of ICH outcomes using Get With The Guidelines Stroke data. We compared patients with ICH who were COVID‐19 positive and negative during the pandemic (March 2020–February 2021) and prepandemic (March 2019–February 2020). Main outcomes were poor functional outcome (defined as a modified Rankin scale score of 4 to 6 at discharge), mortality, and discharge to a skilled nursing facility or hospice. The first stage included 60 091 patients with ICH who were COVID‐19 negative and 1326 COVID‐19 positive. In multivariable analyses, patients with ICH with versus without COVID‐19 infection had 68% higher odds of poor outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.68 [95% CI, 1.41–2.01]), 51% higher odds of mortality (OR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.33–1.71]), and 66% higher odds of being discharged to a skilled nursing facility/hospice (OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.43–1.93]). The second stage included 62 743 prepandemic and 64 681 intrapandemic cases with ICH. In multivariable analyses, patients with ICH admitted during versus before the COVID‐19 pandemic had 10% higher odds of poor outcomes (OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.07–1.14]), 5% higher mortality (OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02–1.08]), and no significant difference in the risk of being discharged to a skilled nursing facility/hospice (OR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.90–0.95]).


The pathophysiology of the COVID‐19 infection and changes in health care delivery during the pandemic played a role in worsening outcomes in the patient population with ICH.


© 2024 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

Publication Title

Journal of the American Heart Association



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