In recent times, DFU (diabetic foot ulcer) has become a universal health problem that affects many diabetes patients severely. DFU requires immediate proper treatment to avert amputation. Clinical examination of DFU is a tedious process and complex in nature. Concurrently, DL (deep learning) methodologies can show prominent outcomes in the classification of DFU because of their efficient learning capacity. Though traditional systems have tried using DL-based models to procure better performance, there is room for enhancement in accuracy. Therefore, the present study uses the AWSg-CNN (Adaptive Weighted Sub-gradient Convolutional Neural Network) method to classify DFU. A DFUC dataset is considered, and several processes are involved in the present study. Initially, the proposed method starts with pre-processing, excluding inconsistent and missing data, to enhance dataset quality and accuracy. Further, for classification, the proposed method utilizes the process of RIW (random initialization of weights) and log softmax with the ASGO (Adaptive Sub-gradient Optimizer) for effective performance. In this process, RIW efficiently learns the shift of feature space between the convolutional layers. To evade the underflow of gradients, the log softmax function is used. When logging softmax with the ASGO is used for the activation function, the gradient steps are controlled. An adaptive modification of the proximal function simplifies the learning rate significantly, and optimal proximal functions are produced. Due to such merits, the proposed method can perform better classification. The predicted results are displayed on the webpage through the HTML, CSS, and Flask frameworks. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated with accuracy, recall, F1-score, and precision to confirm its effectual performance.
Alqahtani, A., Alsubai, S., Rahamathulla, M. P., Gumaei, A., Sha, M., Zhang, Y. D., & Khan, M. A. (2023). Empowering Foot Health: Harnessing the Adaptive Weighted Sub-Gradient Convolutional Neural Network for Diabetic Foot Ulcer Classification. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(17), 2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13172831
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