Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Dr. Julie A. Mustard

Second Advisor

Dr. J. Andrew McDonald

Third Advisor

Dr. Rupesh Kariyat


Water lilies are the only known plant group that uses hyperactive nectar glands to divest pollinators of their pollen. The nectar in Nymphaea ampla is thought to contain secondary metabolites that increase pollen deposition possibly by modifying pollinator behavior. This was explored utilizing visitation and fecundity data from the field coupled with survival and behavioral experiments in the laboratory. Replacing nectar with water reduced seed set in N. ampla which was attributed to reduced visitation in water-bearing flowers and not to effects on pollinator detention time. Exposure to nectar did not reduce survivability in Apis mellifera. Pollen and nectar foragers of Apis mellifera extend their proboscis to N. ampla nectar in different proportions but the proportions corresponded to the response to 0.1M sucrose in both groups. Neither group drank nectar when presented at the proboscis. Exposure to nectar increased grooming and decreased walking behavior in Apis mellifera suggesting physiological action.


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